An international NGO in consultative status with the United Nations
The book for the post-Civil Rights struggle

While African Americans have achieved civil rights, it has not ended
their collective oppression in America.  This book is a pathbreaker for
the next stage in the struggle, and key to understanding the special
rights African Americans enjoy under international law.

IHRAAM is the premier UN recognized international NGO doing
substantive work in the United States as it relates to international law
and African Americans' international legal right to self-determination.
HUMAN RIGHTS AND SELF- DETERMINATION? sought to catalyze a turning point in
the African American struggle.
The Civil Rights movement that Martin Luther King assumed, five decades ago, would
be “not long” in bringing “freedom” is now history. Affirmative action has shot its bolt.
While its achievements are evident—Black faces appear in mainstream politics,
academia, corporations and the media—the African American people at large face
ongoing discrimination, mass incarceration and unemployment, prohibitive voting laws,
growing destitution and legalized vigilante terrorism.

The IHRAAM Conference provided a major mechanism to engage leading African
American political thinkers in examining the potential that international human rights
law and norms, and best state practices on internal self- determination might hold for
African American collective development within the United States in the future.

Key representatives from the African American popular leadership and intelligentsia
flew into Chicago from all corners–-California, Georgia, Illinois, Mississippi, New York,
South Carolina, Washington, and Virginia—to assess, in this context, where the African
American struggle had been, where it was now, and the direction it had to go to move
forward.

Speakers focused on the key issues of the recognition,maintenance and protection of
African Americans’ collective identity, their need for collective social and economic
development, and the significance of a territorial homeland.

Most importantly, they agreed on the need for a democratically empowered political
body such as a Consultative Assembly to specifically represent and act on behalf of the
unique needs of African Americans. As a historically oppressed people, African
Americans have the right to self-determination under international law.
FOREWORD
Is the African American Struggle Heading
in a New
Opening Address
Dr. Farid I. Muhammad

Memorial Tribute to Dr. Y. N. Kly
Diana Collier Kly

PANEL ONE: CIVIL RIGHTS:
NECESSARY BUT NOT
SUFFICIENT?

Understanding Who You Are
Cynthia McKinney

From Hallowed to Hollowed Victories:
Black Civil Rights and the Post-Racialism
Imagination
Dr. Tyson King-Meadows

Dying While Black
Prof. Vernalia Randall

PANEL TWO: INTERNAL SELF-
DETERMINATION FOR
HISTORICALLY OPPRESSED
PEOPLES

External Self-determination and Internal
Self-determination in Quebec, Canada
Prof. Daniel Turp

Seeking Sovereignty: The Need for an
Identifiable Place
Dr. Ava Muhammad

Using International Human Rights to
Protect Indigeneity
Prof. Carla Pratt

KEYNOTE ADDRESS:
African Americans’ Right to Self-
Determination
Francis A. Boyle

PANEL THREE: COLLECTIVE
EMPOWERMENT, INSTITUTIONS,
JURISDICTIONS...

National Survey on African American Self-
Determination
Dr. Farid I. Muhammad

Do We Need Self-Determining Institutions?
Atty. Chokwe Lumumba

The Land is the Key
Dr. John Boyd

Policy Drives African American Conditions
Henry L. English

Economics of Self-Determination: The
Afrikan Descendant Nation in America
Kamm Howard

PANEL FOUR: USING THE UN TO
ADVANCE AFRICAN AMERICAN
CONCERNS

Using the UN to Pressure America
Atty. Standish Willis

Disya We Land:  Continued Self-
Determination of the Gullah'Geechee
Nation
Queen Quet

RECOMMENDED READING
Minority Rights: Some Questions &
Answers
Y.N. Kly & Diana Kly

Did the civil rights struggle reach its peak with the election of a Black President? Are
civil rights sufficient to ensure African Americans equality in social well being
indicators such as health, employment, income, education, home ownership, etc?
What are African Americans international human rights under the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)? Has US policy fulfilled these
rights and obligations? What is the current status of special measures (affirmative
action) in the US, as required by CERD and other relevant international human rights

Are there any institutional or constitutional options for oppressed peoples other than
assimilation or secession? What is internal self-determination? What is the difference
between affirmative action and internal self-determination? What are some possible
forms of internal self-determination exercised by other internal nations elsewhere, or
even here in the U.S.? What can we learn from the successful practices of other
states for ensuring minority cultural protection and equal-status development? Do
the peoples exercising internal self-determination have to be territorially based, or
are there non-territorial forms of self-determination?


Are African Americans a people,? Do they want a collective future or do they want to
assimilate? Should they conduct a national plebiscite to help identify/implement their
collective
aspirations? Should they establish a Constituent Assembly to speak for them and
operate in collaboration with other levels of US government? Are there some
government jurisdictions better off if run for themselves by African Americans?
Should they seek a share of their own federal/ state tax dollars on a regular basis?
Might such ideas, if constitutionally empowered, be viewed as the logical goals of a
comprehensive reparations movement?

CONFERENCE SPEAKERS' BIOS
Authoritative African American and international legal
scholars of stature as well as primary actors from the
African American community who are actively
engaged with African American organizations and
institutions.

CONFERENCE  PRESS RELEASE

CONFERENCE PHOTOS

SUGGESTED PRE-CONFERENCE READING
SOME THINGS TO THINK ABOUT

  • Would you be in favor of African-Americans having some
    degree of independent control over  institutions & agencies (e.g.
    schools, public services, etc) that most directly affect their own
    communities?
                               
  • Should African-Americans seek to enjoy their collective rights
    (in addition to civil rights)  to address their common problems
    and needs, as is normative for national minorities and peoples
    under customary international law?
HELP EXPAND AWARENESS.
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    Use as a text related to African
    American Studies

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    Contact your local media to suggest
    they do a review or an interview with
    IHRAAM or one of the Conference
    Participants.  

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